Affordance trompeuse : le data center

Après quelques aller-retours ces 40 ou 50 dernières années, le data center est à nouveau à la mode, en particulier parce qu'il se doit d'être vert. Le data center est en effet aujourd'hui le lieu où se matérialise le cloud computing. Data ? Computing ? Cela vous rappelle évidemment l'affordance trompeuse LA DATA ! Autant LA DATA est trompeur en français, autant data center l'est dans sa langue d'origine, et on peut légitimement se demander si cela a toujours été le cas. Le Web est (comme souvent) assez pauvre sur l'origine des termes informatiques, mais en cherchant un peu, on arrive relativement vite sur le cas des World Data Center créés en 1957. L'histoire de leur établissement peut être découverte dans The Origins and Principles of the World Data Center System, dont provient l'extrait ci-dessous :

At its decisive meeting in Brussels in 1955, when the Soviet Union officially unveiled its IGY programs, CSAGI set up a special Committee on the Availability of Data. This Committee recommended that data centers be set up in different countries as depositories and dissemination points for IGY data. The data would be collected and made available to any scientists without condition except for the cost of reproduction and mailing. The Committee recommended that CSAGI publish guides to the depositories and the types of data available from each. These World Data Centers would be more than passive depositories. They would actively supply data and provide the necessary facilities for data analysis.

Lors de sa réunion décisive à Bruxelles en 1955, lorsque l'Union soviétique dévoila officiellement ses programmes pour l'Année Géophysique Internationale (IGY), le Comité Spécial de l’Année Géophysique Internationale (CSAGI) a mis en place un comité spécial sur la disponibilité des données. Ce comité a recommandé que des centres de données soient créés dans différents pays en tant que dépositaires et points de diffusion des données de l'IGY. Les données seraient collectées et mises à la disposition de tous les scientifiques sans condition, à l'exception des frais de reproduction et d'envoi. Le comité a recommandé que le CSAGI publie des guides sur les dépositaires et les types de données disponibles pour chacun. Ces centres mondiaux de données seraient plus que des dépositaires passifs. Ils fourniraient activement des données et fourniraient les installations nécessaires pour l'analyse des données.

Ne nous méprenons pas, on parle déjà à l'époque d'automatisation du traitement des données, et de données numériques (sur cartes perforées), voire des premiers computer facilities : nous étions toujours en plein dans l'ère de la mécanographie. Le terme de data center est très probablement arrivé avant, mais à la fin des années 50, il paraît assez clair que quand on parle de ces data center, c'est pour désigner une stratégie proactive de centralisation des données dans un dépôt défini et géré par des sachant, afin de pouvoir les mettre en valeur. Le premier sujet tourne autour de la non-perte des données et de leur partage, un but proéminent après le succès relatif de la deuxième Année Polaire Internationale (API).

Rien de cela dans le data center d'aujourd'hui, qui n'est plus qu'un bâtiment connecté à Internet, bien refroidit, et rempli de serveurs, quelles que soient leurs utilisations.

Vous pouvez trouver le reste de la série sous l'article d'introduction.


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